This cause of exploration and discovery is not an option we choose.
It is a desire written in the human heart. We are that part of creation
which seeks to understand all creation. We find the best among us, send
them forth into unmapped darkness, and pray they will return. They go in
peace for all mankind, and all mankind is in their debt.
President G. W. Bush, 2/2003 Columbia space shuttle crew memorial
At the beginning of 2018, the US Defense Department maintained an estimated stockpile of 4,000 nuclear warheads for delivery by more than 800 ballistic missiles and aircraft.
Most of the warheads in the stockpile are not deployed, but rather stored for potential upload onto missiles and aircraft if so decided. Many are destined for retirement. We estimate that approximately 1,800 warheads are currently deployed, of which roughly 1,650 strategic warheads are deployed on ballistic missiles and at bomber bases in the United States. Another 150 tactical bombs are deployed in Europe. The remaining warheads – approximately 2,200, or 55 percent of the total – are in storage as a so-called hedge against technical or geopolitical surprises. Several hundred of those warheads are scheduled to be retired before 2030.
In addition to the warheads in the Defense Department stockpile, approximately 2,550 retired but still intact warheads are stored under custody of the Energy Department and are awaiting dismantlement, for a total US inventory of roughly 6,550 warheads.
Bulletin of Atomic Scientists (https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.2018.1438219)
I'm executing science programs on the
as Project Scientist in Tucson, I once spent 4.5 years helping to design.
Current programs are focused on the new T-spec IR spectrograph, recently
commissioned on SOAR after moving from the Blanco telescope.
My students have learned ZEMAX and SolidWorks 3D CAD/CAM design tools,
printed parts from those directly on our lab's large volume 3D printer,
programmed servo motors, and designed/built surface-mount circuit boards,
among other technical activities to support spectrograph modifications.
We're exploring barred galaxy structure and dynamical evolution using integral-field
spectrometers to analyze and model gas and stellar velocity fields, and
We've worked on numerical simulations of starburst outflows as
part of a NASA-funded Herschel space Observatory program,
and observations and models of Galactic (Herbig-Haro) and galaxy (superwind) outflows.